Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) of a district: early-phase testing on the Panora’Marne project (Marne Europe site for IMGP)
How to integrate the LCA approach into a planning project for a new district?
The consortium headed by Kaufman & Broad Grands Projets responded to the call for projects entitled “Inventons la Métropole du Grand Paris” (IMGP) on the Marne Europe site at Villiers-sur-Marne. The project consists of a new mixed-use district covering some 116,000 m² of floor space, featuring housing, offices, shops, a cinema, hotels and other activities.
Efficacity provided support to the consortium during the proposal phase on:
- Analysing the planning project’s environmental performance (against 11 indicators) by comparison against an equivalent benchmark project;
- Evaluating the impact reduction achieved by the lines of action introduced by the consortium at this early stage in the design.
The methodology adopted was based on Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) (ISO 14040) and used the Urban Print tool developed by Efficacity to incorporate into the analysis:
- The different types of building (housing, shops, offices, hotels, etc.), and construction methods (loadbearing concrete wall, wood-concrete mix, etc.);
- Public spaces (roadways, green spaces, etc.);
- Existing networks (water supply, sanitation, waste, etc.);
- Energy supply (energy mix, energy efficiency of systems, solar power production, etc.);
- Mobility flows for the different types of user.
Aspects linked to residents’ behaviour (water consumption and energy needs, waste treatment, percentage waste sorting and recycling, etc.) as well the site climate zone were also taken into consideration.
The results obtained were used to quantify the environmental impacts of the planning project according to different contributors and to identify the three main contributors: energy consumption, buildings and mobility.
This district LCA also provided a means of quantifying the impact reductions made possible by the various lines of action proposed (moderate temperature loop, roof-mounted solar panels, wood construction and local organic management of waste water).
This study is intended as a first step in continuous support using the LCA method throughout the district design process.